Thứ Ba, 8 tháng 11, 2016


Dubbed by some "the Palestinians of Asia", the Mon folks – numbering involving two and 4 million in Burma and an believed fifty thousand to two hundred thousand in Thailand (mainly while in the western provinces of Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi, during the Gulf province of Samut Sakhon and in Nonthaburi and Pathum Thani, just north of Bangkok) – have endured hundreds of years of persecution, displacement and forced assimilation.

Ethnologists speculate the Mon originated both in India or Mongolia, travelling south to settle on the western financial institutions of your Chao Phraya valley in the first century BC. Here they Established the Dvaravati kingdom (sixth to eleventh centuries Advert), setting up centres at U Thong, Lopburi and Nakhon Pathom and afterwards consolidating a northern kingdom in Haripunchai (modern day-working day Lamphun). They likely introduced Theravada Buddhism towards the location, and made many of the earliest Buddhist monuments, particularly Wheels of Regulation and Buddha footprints.

Above over the Burmese aspect from the border, the Mon kingdom had recognized alone round the southern metropolis of Pegu effectively prior to the Burmese filtered into the area within the ninth century, but via the mid-eighteenth century they'd been stripped in their homeland and were Yet again relocating to Thailand. The Thais welcomed them as a valuable supply of labour, and in 1814 the longer term Rama IV arrived with the Kanchanaburi border with a few royal warboats along with a guard of honour to chaperone the exiles. Swathes of undeveloped jungle got more than to them, a lot of that are still Mon-dominated now.

The persecution of Burmese Mon proceeds to today underneath Burma's repressive routine (see Refugees from Burma: the Karen), and the Mon continue to wrestle for the appropriate to administer their own personal independent Mon Condition within their historical homelands opposite Kanchanaburi province in reduce Burma. As one particular commentator has described it, Although some of Burma's ethnic minority groups look for to establish autonomy, the Mon are attempting to reclaim it. Although the New Mon Condition Get together (NMSP) entered right into a ceasefire agreement With all the Burmese junta in June 1995, Worldwide human-rights companies keep on to report gross violations in opposition to civilian Mon residing in Burma. Thousands of Mon Gentlemen, women and kids are actually push-ganged into unpaid labour, soldiers occupy certain Mon villages and commandeer develop and livestock, and reports of beatings and gang rapes are certainly not uncommon. In an make an effort to wipe out Mon tradition, the junta has also banned the teaching of Mon language, literature and record in government educational facilities, and outlawed the putting on of Mon nationwide gown at official institutions.

Not amazingly, Mon are already fleeing these atrocities in droves, The bulk ending up in 3 resettlement camps in a Mon-managed area together the Thai–Burma border, the most significant staying Halockhani near Sangkhlaburi; the eleven,000 Mon estimated to be living in these camps as of October 2011 haven't any right of entry into Thailand. To learn more, see the website of your Human Rights Foundation of Monland.

Like Thais, the Mon are a predominantly Buddhist, rice-escalating individuals, Nevertheless they also have sturdy animist beliefs. All Mon people have totemic house spirits, like the turtle, snake, rooster or pig, which have selected taboos; should you're in the chicken-spirit spouse and children, for example, the lungs and head of every hen you cook must be available for the spirits, and although you're permitted to elevate and eliminate chickens, you will need to in no way give one absent. Friends belonging to a distinct spirit group from their host usually are not allowed to continue to be right away. Mon festivals also vary slightly from Thai ones – at Songkhran (Thai New 12 months), the Mon boost the standard drinking water-throwing and parades using a Exclusive courtship ritual where groups of men and ladies Perform one another at bowling, throwing flirtatious banter along with their picket discs.

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